Position Marks

The developments in business activities cause changes in Trademark Law, as well. In this respect, the non-traditional mark, also known as a non-conventional mark, has been adopted. The non-traditional mark is a new type of a trademark, and this category is not limited. European Union Intellectual Property Network (“EUIPN”) explains the examples for non-traditional such as shape, position, pattern, color, sound, motion, multimedia, hologram. ("Common Communication On The Representation Of New Types Of Trade Marks, p. 4-5")In this article, our purpose is to explain the “position mark” that is one of the non-traditionally marks.

A position mark was regulated firstly in 2017 by Article 3 of the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/1431 (“EU Regulation”). The provision defines the position mark and explains the details of the application. The term “position mark” specifies that a trademark comprising the specific way in which the mark is placed or affixed on the goods. The best examples of the position marks are three stripes of Adidas and red bottoms of Louboutin's shoes.

Besides, any specific provision for position mark is not stipulated in Turkish Law. However, trademarks defined in Article 4 of the Industrial Property Law (“Turkish IP Law”) do not count as numerus clausus. Further, Article 7 of the Regulation on Enforcement of Industrial Property Law (“Regulation”) includes some examples of non-traditional marks and explains the requirements for the application of these trademarks. According to these legislations, “other” types of non-traditional marks are accepted, and the position mark is able to be registered.

On the other side, the elements of position marks are explained in Court Decisions. According to these practices, the position mark has two key elements which are “the sign” and “the position”. Firstly, the sign element should be specified. However, the sign element does not have to be distinctive by itself. The notable point is that the sign should be distinctive with its position. The other main element is the “position”. This position has to be the same for all goods, and the sign has to be placed identically. ("Assoc. Prof. Dr. Burçak Yıldız, “Position Marks in Light of Jurisprudence of Justice of the European Union”, 2018") According to the doctrinal approach, position mark becomes different from simple three-dimensional marks due to the fact that position marks are used with identical color, size and is placed on the goods’ identical area. Thus, these marks remind consumers of related goods in which the position mark is placed even though the signs are separate from the good.

Additionally, Trademark Examination Guide (“Guide”) published by the Turkish Patent and Trademark Office (“TURKPATENT”) explains the position trademarks, and the definition in this guide is the same with the explanation in EU Regulation. According to this Guide, the following points require to be considered:

  • The representation of the position. (mandatory)

  • The representation of the elements which do not form part of the subject matter of the registration. (mandatory) Broken or dotted lines may be preferred.

  • The explanation of how the sign is placed on goods. (optional) This explanation should be just for informing.

The most notable issue is making the representation of the sign’s position. For example, the application is for clothes and hats would be rejected due to the fact that the representation is just for shoes.

Accordingly, there is an example in which a circle on the side of a sports shoes was found distinctive for ‘footwear’ by the Board of Appeals of the EUIPO (“the Board of Appeals”). The Board of Appeals clarified that “it is entirely customary today for manufacturers of sports and leisure shoes always to display the same pattern on their goods, which may be a pattern of lines, stripes, geometric shapes or a combination thereof, always in the same place on the outside of the product, making it visible from a distance. The consumer is accustomed to such signs and can in principle be guided by them when buying sports and leisure shoes.”

A position mark which is placed on the toe of the sports shoes was found distinctive by the Turkish Supreme Court. On the other hand, when TURKPATENT’s practices were reviewed, it has been seen that the practices do not provide consistent results. Even though the Guide published by TURKPATENT explains the requirement for the registration of position marks, TURKPATENT does not have a consistent practice. For this reason, r in some cases, even though the position mark has distinctiveness, TURKPATENT may reject the application.

Briefly, the position mark is a new term for the Turkish trademark law. However, the registration of a position mark is possible according to Article 4 of the Turkish IP Law and Article 7 of the Regulation. The main point is the distinctiveness of the sign with its position on goods. The position mark’s distinctiveness should be examined in each individual concrete case. Further, if the position mark creates impressions of a specific business in the eye of the consumer, it should not be rejected.


Turkish Personal Data Protection Authority Decision w. no. 2020/47

On 23 June 2020, The Turkish Personal Data Protection Authority (“the DPA”) published a summary of decision w. no. 2020/47 to respond a request of a foreign bank that has a representative office in Turkey. DPA made the following explanations regarding whether a foreign bank that has a representative office in Turkey can be considered as a data controller according to the Law on the Protection of Personal Data (“the Law”). DPA published its evaluation on whether this foreign bank is obliged to register with the data controllers’ registry (“VERBIS”). Pursuant to Article 4 of the Communique on Procedures and Principles Related to Operations of the Representatives in Turkey (“Communique”), representatives can perform a promotional activity in Turkey related to affiliated bank’s services, and it can transfer the information obtained to the affiliated bank. These activities of the representative contribute to the services of the foreign bank. In this context, the activities of the representative in Turkey, cannot be considered separate from the personal data processing activities made for the banking activities. For this reason, it has to been accepted that there is a close connection between the representative’s activities and the bank’s activities related to the processing of personal data. In this respect, Guidelines 3/2018 on the territorial scope of the European Unity General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) specifies this example. If an establishment has an office in the EU and this office’s activities increase the revenue, the absence of an establishment in the Union does not necessarily mean that processing activities by a data controller or processor established in a third country will be excluded from the scope of the GDPR. Due to the fact that bank located within a foreign country and establishment has an existence in our country through a representative, accepting that processing of personal data activities does not fall within the scope of the Law does not comply with the intent of the Law. The purpose of these registrations with the VERBIS and notification obligation set forth in Article 16 of the Law is providing the highest control over data subjects’ personal data. According to this, bank residing in abroad is obliged to register in VERBIS related to personal data processing activities. Also, Article 5(1-b) of the Regulation on Data Controllers Registry regulates that “Data controllers not established in Turkey are obliged to register with the Registry by their representatives prior to the start of data processing.” Similarly, the DPA’s decision w. no. 2019/10 of 24.01.2019 about Procedures and Principles of Personal Data Breach Notification clarifies that “If data breach occurs in the presence of data controller established abroad, in case this breach affects data subject residing in Turkey and Data Subjects benefit from the products and services provided within Turkey, data controller shall notify the Board within the same principles.” In parallel with these explanations, the DPA adopted the following decisions; Everyone has the right to request the protection of his/her personal data according to Article 20 of the Constitution of The Republic of Turkey. In determining the territorial scope of the Law, an approach that provides the highest and the broadest protection to the data subjects has to be adopted. The foreign bank has a continued existence in Turkey through its representative. As a consequence, the Law will apply to the above-mentioned bank, and the bank has to be deemed a data controller. Also, the bank is obliged to register with the VERBIS.

Our Evaluation of the Decision This decision of the DPA must be interpreted together with the decision regarding branch offices and liaison offices of foreign entities w. no. 2019/225. In that decision, the DPA decided that liaison offices are not required to register with VERBIS and are not data controllers. Liaison offices and foreign banks' branch offices are very similar in the eye of the Turkish Law. Both cannot engage in commercial activity, the sole purpose of both is to market the foreign entity, and both liaison offices and foreign banks do not have legal personality. For this purpose, liaison offices and branches of foreign banks are not data controllers under Turkish Law. Having said that, since these organizations collect and process personal data on behalf of the foreign entity, the foreign entity is the controller.

Key Takeaways

  1. Liaison offices of foreign entities and branch offices of foreign banks are not required to register with VERBIS.

  2. Foreign entities with liaison offices and foreign banks with branch offices in Turkey are data controllers and are required to register.

  3. This decision does not affect the position of branches of foreign entities. Branches of foreign entities remain to be data controllers.


Turkey's Social Media Law

On 29.07.2020 the Turkish Parliament voted and agreed the proposed amendments on the Law on the Regulation of Publications on the Internet and Suppression of Crimes Committed by Means of such Publications w. no 5651 (“the Internet Law”).

The amendment has been published in the Official Gazette on 31.07.2020. Here are the changes brought with the amendment:

 

1- Adding the term “social network provider”

With the amendment, the term “social network provider” has been added into the Internet Law.

Social network provider is defined as a natural or legal person who enables users to create, view or share texts, images, voice, location or other types of data for the purpose of social interaction. With the new “social network provider” definition, the Internet Law sets forth specific obligations to social network providers.

Unfortunately, the term social network provider is too broadly defined, and it may even contain live chat applications and in-game/in-application chat. We evaluate user-to-user chat should have been clearly made exempt however this is not the case.

Having said that, since the purpose of the Law is to check and control the content that is publicly available, we evaluate that in practice, the provisions of the Internet Law shall not be applied to chat applications or in-game chat programs.

 

2- Extraterritoriality and Jurisdiction

For social network providers that are not located in Turkey, the amendment allows the Turkish State to directly serve and notify any administrative fine to social network providers through email or other means. The Turkish State may determine the address of the social network provider to notify and serve administrative fines through the contact information on service providers’ website or any via any other source such as IP address, domain name, etc.

The amendment sets forth that this notification and service shall be accepted as a legal and valid notification and the social network provider will be deemed to have received the notification after 5 days as of sending the notification.

This amendment may be risky for social network providers since it will be very difficult to keep track of notifications by the Turkish State unless the social network provider does not appoint a representative in Turkey.

 

3- Appointing a Representative

The amendment requires foreign social network providers (social network companies that are not established in Turkey) and have daily access of 1.000.000 or more from Turkey must appoint a representative in Turkey. 1.000.000 daily access does not mean 1.000.000 unique users daily. Multiple access by the same user counts towards this limit.

The representative can be a Turkish natural person or a legal person established in Turkey.

The social network provider must keep the contact information of the representative on the website to allow easy access by users.

In addition, the social network provider must report the representative’s information (entity name, contact) to the Information and Communication Technologies Authority. (“Authority”)

 

4- Data Localization

Foreign and Turkish social network providers with 1.000.000 or more daily access from Turkey must keep Turkish users’ (users from Turkey) personal data in Turkey.

 

5- Content Removal/Access Blocking

Foreign and Turkish social network providers with 1.000.000 or more daily access from Turkey must respond to content removal and access blocking requests by natural and legal persons within 48 hours. If the request is rejected, the legal basis for rejection shall be provided.

If the request is accepted, the social network provider must respond to the requesting natural or legal person and take appropriate action such as removing the content or blocking the access to the content.

Failure to meet the above requirement is subject to an administrative fine of TRY 5.000.000 (approx. $ 716.000).

Further, for application of content removal or access blocking decisions by judges, courts or administrative bodies., social network providers must remove the content or block the access to the content within 24 hours as of receiving the decision. Social network providers who fail to comply shall be responsible for all damages that may arise due to content.

Failure to implement the blocking or removal decisions by social network providers with 1.000.000 or more daily access from Turkey is subject to administrative fines of TRY 1.000.000 (approx. $ 143.000) and judicial fines of up to TRY 5.000.000 (approx. $ 716.000)

 

6- Reporting

Foreign and Turkish social network providers with 1.000.000 or more daily access from Turkey must submit a report to the Authority every six months showing the statistics on content removal and/or blocking access requests, decisions and applications of such.

 

7- Timeline and Other Fines

Social network providers will be given 3 months to comply with the requirements. This period shall start after the publication of the amended Law in the Official Gazette. At the end of this 3 month period, a five-stage sanction plan will be implemented for the obligation to appoint a representative:

i) The Authority will notify the social network providers that did not fulfill their obligations to appoint and report representatives. An administrative fine of TRY 10.000.000 will be applied to the social network providers that fail to fulfill their obligations within 30 days from the date of notification (approx. $ 1.433.000).

ii) If the social network provider does not appoint a representative within 30 days as of the first administrative fine, an additional administrative fine of TRY 30.000.000 will be applied (approx. $ 4.300.000).

iii) If the social network provider does not appoint a representative within 30 days as of the second administrative fine, real and legal persons in Turkey will not be allowed to use online advertising services of the social network provider and money transfers to the social network provider will be restricted.

iv) If the social network provider does not appoint a representative within 3 months as of the restriction of advertisement services, the Authority may request from the judge to narrow the bandwidth of the social network provider to 50%.

v) If the social network provider does not appoint a representative within 30 days as of step iv, the Authority may request from the judge to narrow the bandwidth of the social network provider up to 90%.

If the social network provider decides to appoint a representative at any stage, only 25% of the administrative will be collected and the other restrictions will be removed.


Pozisyon Markalari

Ticari hayattaki gelişmeler Marka Hukuku’na da yeni yaklaşımlar getirmektedir. Bunun bir örneği olarak “geleneksel olmayan markalar” kavramı Marka Hukuku uygulamalarına dahil edilmiştir. Geleneksel olmayan markalar, geleneksel markaların aksine yeni bir kavramdır ve bu kategoriye dahil olan marka türleri yenilikler ve gelişmelerle birlikte artmaktadır. Avrupa Birliği Fikri Mülkiyet Ağı (“EUIPN”), pozisyon, ses, desen, renk, hologram, multimedya, hareket, şekil gibi marka çeşitlerini geleneksel olmayan markalara örnek göstermektedir.("Common Communication On The Representation Of New Types Of Trade Marks, s. 4-5") Bu makalede, geleneksel olmayan marka kategorisinde yer alan pozisyon markalarını açıklayacağız.

Pozisyon markası, Avrupa Birliği Düzenlemelerine ilk defa 2017’de 2017/1431 sayılı Uygulama Tüzüğü’nün (“Tüzük”) 3. maddesinde düzenlenerek dahil edilmiştir. İlgili düzenlemede pozisyon markası tanımlanmış ve başvuruların nasıl yapılması gerektiğine dair bilgi verilmiştir. Pozisyon markası terimi, işaretin özel bir şekilde ürünün üzerine yerleştirilmesi veya eklenmesiyle oluşturulan markaları ifade etmektedir. Bu markalar, belli bir ürün üzerinde yerleştirildikleri konum itibariyle ayırt edici nitelik kazanmaktadır. Pozisyon markası için verilen örnekler arasında en iyi bilinenleri ise Adidas’ın üç çizgisi ve Louboutin’ın özgün kırmızı tabanlı ayakkabılarıdır.

Türkiye’deki marka alanında pozisyon markaları için özel bir düzenleme bulunmamaktadır. Buna karşılık Sınai Mülkiyet Kanunu (“SMK”) 4.maddesinde yer alan marka tanımı, markaları numerus clausus bir şekilde saymamaktadır ve ilgili madde geleneksel olmayan markaların tescilini mümkün kılmaktadır. Ek olarak, Sınai Mülkiyet Kanununun Uygulanmasına Dair Yönetmelik’in (“Yönetmelik”) 7.maddesinde geleneksel olmayan markaların örneklemesi yapılmıştır ve bu markalara ilişkin başvuruların nasıl yapılması gerektiği açıklanmıştır. Doğrudan pozisyon markaları ile ilgili olmayan bu düzenlemeler, pozisyon markalarının tesciline olanak sağlamaktadır.

Pozisyon markasına ilişkin unsurlar mahkeme kararları ile detaylandırılmaktadır. Uygulamalar incelendiğinde pozisyon markasına ilişkin 2 ana unsurun ifade edildiği görülmektedir. İlki “işaret” unsuru, diğeri ise “pozisyon” unsurudur. “İşaret” unsuruna ilişkin olarak da 2 temel özellikten bahsedilmektedir. Öncelikle, ilgili işaret belirli/spesifik bir işaret olmalıdır. Ancak bu işaretin tek başına bir ayırt ediciliğinin olması şart değildir. Önemli olan yer aldıkları pozisyon nedeniyle ilgili üründen bağımsızlaştırıldığında bile o ürünü hatırlatmasıdır. Pozisyon markasına ilişkin diğer ana unsur olarak ifade edilen, “pozisyon” kavramı ise ilgili işaretin markaya ait ürünlerin her birinin aynı yerine aynı şekilde yerleştirilmesi ifade etmektedir.("Doç. Dr. Burçak Yıldız, “Avrupa Birliği Adalet Divanı Kararları Işığında Pozisyon Markaları”, 2018")Genel görüşe göre pozisyon markalarının ürünlerin daima belirli bir yerinde, aynı renk ve aynı boyutta kullanılması ve üründen bağımsız olarak düşünüldüğü zaman derhal üzerinde bulunan ürünü akla getirmesi nedeniyle basit 3 boyutlu markalardan ayrıldığı kabul edilmiştir.

Ek olarak, Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu (“TÜRKPATENT”) tarafından yayımlanan Marka İnceleme Kılavuzu (“Kılavuz”) pozisyon markasını da içermektedir. İlgili Kılavuzda pozisyon markasının tanımı yapılırken AB Tüzüğünden yararlanılmıştır. Aynı zamanda bu Kılavuzda, pozisyon markası tescili başvurusunun ne şekilde yapılması gerektiği aşağıdaki yönlendirmeler ile açıklanmıştır:

  • Koruma talep edilen pozisyonun gösterimi (zorunludur).

  • Tescilin konusuna girmeyen unsurların gösterimi (zorunludur). Bu görseller kesik veya noktalı çizgilerle gösterilebilir.

  • İşaretin mallar üzerine nasıl eklendiğine ilişkin açıklama (isteğe bağlıdır). Açıklama sadece bilgilendirme amaçlı olmalıdır.

Belirtildiği üzere, en önemli husus koruma talep edilen işaretin pozisyonunun gösterimidir. Örnek olarak, yapılan bir pozisyon markası başvurusu kapsamında giysiler, ayak giysileri ve baş giysileri yer almakta; ancak, marka başvurusundaki gösterimin sadece ayak giysisi için yapılmış olması nedeniyle marka başvurusunun giysiler, baş giysileri kategorisi için reddedilmesi gerekmektedir.

Bununla birlikte, EUIPO Temyiz Kurulu (“Temyiz Kurulu”) spor ayakkabı üzerinde yer alan yuvarlak işaretini ayırt edici bulmuştur ve günümüzde çoğu spor markasının ayakkabıları için kendilerine özgü işareti aynı şekilde ve aynı yerde kullandığı tespit ederek, tüketicilerin ilgili malları almasında bu işaretlerin etkili olduğunu ifade etmiştir.

Temyiz Kurulunun kararına benzer bir şekilde, Yargıtay tarafından da ayakkabı burnuna yerleştirilmiş olan pozisyon markası ayırt edici bulunmuştur. Buna karşılık, TÜRKPATENT’in kararları incelendiğinde, TÜRKPATENT’in pozisyon markalarına karşı istikrarlı bir uygulaması olmadığı görülmektedir. Her ne kadar TÜRKPATENT tarafından yayımlanan Kılavuz, pozisyon markalarını açıklasa ve ilgili işaretlerin yer aldıkları konumla birlikte ayırt edici oldukları taktirde tescil edilmesi gerektiğini belirtse de TÜRKPATENT’in yerleşik bir uygulaması mevcut değildir. Bu nedenle, pozisyon markalarının ayırt edici olması halinde dahi TÜRKPATENT bazı durumlarda pozisyon marka başvurularını reddetmektedir.

Sonuç olarak, pozisyon markasının Türk marka hukuku için yeni bir kavramdır. Ancak, SMK’nın 4. Maddesine ve Yönetmelik’in 7. Maddesine göre pozisyon markaları tescil edilebilir niteliktedir. Asıl husus, ilgili işaretin sahip olduğu pozisyonla beraber ayırt edici niteliğe sahip olup olmadığıdır. Tescil başvurusu için gereklilikler sağlandığı takdirde, ortalama tüketicinin algısı esas alınmalıdır. Eğer işaret ve işaretin bulunduğu yer, tüketici de bir izlenim yaratmakta ise, ilgili işaretin pozisyon markası olarak tescil edilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu noktada Kılavuzda da belirtildiği üzere, her bir somut olay kendi koşullarına göre incelenmelidir ve tüketici nezdinde ayırt edicilik vasfı taşıyan başvuruların reddedilmemesi gerekmektedir.


İnternet Alan Adlari Tahsisi

Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi (“ODTÜ”) uzun yıllardır Türkiye’de Nic.TR sistemi aracılığıyla ".tr" uzantılı alan adlarının tahsis ve işlemlerini yönetmektedir. Ancak 21 Aralık 2018 tarihinde imzaladığı sözleşme ile ".tr" Kayıt Otoritesi yetkisini, Bilgi Teknolojileri ve İletişim Kurumu (“BTK”)'na devretmiştir. Sözleşmede 2020 yılında Nic.TR sisteminin kapatılıp bu sistem yerine .tr Ağ Bilgi Sisteminin (“TRABİS”) faaliyete geçeceği düzenlenmiştir. TRABİS’in ne zaman faaliyete geçeceği ise BTK tarafından ayrıca duyurulacaktır.

TRABİS faaliyete geçene kadar ise geçiş döneminde, Kayıt Operatörleri alan adlarına ilişkin işlemleri yürütecektir. Bu kapsamda 14 Mart 2019 tarihinde ODTÜ tarafından METUnic, Nic.tr’nin Kayıt Operatörü işlevini devam ettirmek üzere kurulmuştur. 23 Mart 2020 tarihi itibarı ile de METUnic dahil Kayıt Operatörü sayısı toplam 20 adettir.

Artık yeni alan adı tahsis edecek ve mevcut alan adlarını yenileyecek kişilerin işlemlerini METUnic veya diğer Kayıt Operatörleri ile yürütmesi gerekmektedir. NicTR sistemi, 23 Mart 2020 tarihinde başvuru ve yenilemelere kapatılmıştır. Bu kapsamda, internet alan adı sahiplerinin işlemleri ile ilgili herhangi bir kesinti ve aksaklık yaşamamak adına alan adlarını METUnic veya diğer Kayıt Operatörlerine aktarması gerekmektedir. İlgili kişiler Nic.tr’de kayıtlı olan alan adlarını, Nic.tr’nin internet sitesi üzerinden aktarım sistemini kullanarak veya Sorumlu Değişikliği Onay Formunu ileterek, Kayıt Operatörlerine aktarabilmektedir. Aktarıma ilişkin tüm işlemler Nic.tr’nin internet sitesi üzerinden online olarak yapılmaktadır.

İnternet alan adı sahiplerinin dikkat etmesi gereken önemli husus, herhangi bir Kayıt Operatörüne taşınmayan alan adlarının ancak son ödeme tarihlerine kadar kullanılabileceği ve daha sonra yenilenemeyeceğidir. Bu nedenle, Kayıt Operatörlerine aktarımın yapılması zorunludur.

Sunucu değişikliği, sorumlu değişikliği ve bilgi güncelleme gibi işlemler ise TRABİS faaliyete geçene kadar Nic.TR üzerinden yapılmaya devam edecektir. NicTR sistemi TRABİS faaliyete geçene kadar aktif kalacak, TRABİS’in faaliyete geçmesiyle eş zamanlı olarak kapanacaktır. TRABİS faaliyete geçtikten sonra ise, Kayıt Operatörleri ilgili işlemleri TRABİS üzerinden yapacaktır.

Sonuç olarak, internet alan adı sahiplerinin TRABİS henüz faaliyete geçmemiş olsa dahi NicTR’nin Kayıt Operatörleri sayfasında yer alan Kayıt Operatörlerinden bir tanesini seçip alan adlarının aktarımını yapması gerekmektedir.


Domain Name Allocation

Middle East Technical University (“METU”) has managed the administration and registration of ".tr" domain names for many years in Turkey by means of Nic.tr system. On December 21, 2018, METU transferred its authorization of Registry regarding “.tr” domain names to Information and Communication Technologies Authority (“ICTA”) by signing a protocol. Under the Protocol, Nic.TR system shall shut down and .tr Network Information System (“TRABIS”) shall come into action. Also, TRABİS will be activated following the announcement by ICTA.

Until TRABİS is activated, Registrars will carry out the domain names transactions. One of these Registrars is METUnic established by METU on March 14, 2019, in order to pursue the Registrar function of Nic.tr. As of March 23, 2020, the number of Registrars including METUnic is 20 in total.

The persons who will allocate new domain names and renew their existing domain names must carry out their transactions through METUnic or other Registrars since NicTR was shut down to registrations and renewals on March 23, 2020. In this context, owners of internet domain names should transfer their domain names to METUnic or other Registrars in order not to experience any interruptions regarding their transactions. The related persons can transfer their domain names registered in Nic.tr to METUnic or other Registrars by submitting “Contact Change Approval Form” or by using online transfer page which is available on Nic.TR. All transfer transactions are taken online on website of Nic.tr.

The owners of internet domain names should particularly pay attention that domain names that are not transferred to any Registrars can only be used until the payment due date and cannot be renewed later. In this regard, the transfer to any Registrar is mandatory.

DNS Change, Contact Change and Owner Information Update transactions will continue to be made through Nic.TR until TRABİS is activated. NicTR system will be accessible until TRABİS is activated and it will be closed together with the activation of TRABİS. After TRABİS is activated, the Registrars pursue their transactions through TRABIS.

Briefly, even if TRABİS has not been activated yet, the owners of domain names should transfer their domain names to one of Registrars.